Easton's Bible Dictionary
(1.) Hebrews nagid, a prominent, conspicuous person, whatever his capacity: as, chief of the royal palace (2 Chronicles 28:7; Comp. 1 Kings 4:6), chief of the temple (1 Chronicles 9:11; Jeremiah 20:1), the leader of the Aaronites (1 Chronicles 12:27), keeper of the sacred treasury (26:24), captain of the army (13:1), the king (1 Samuel 9:16), the Messiah (Dan. 9:25).
(3.) Hebrews pakid, an officer or magistrate. It is used of the delegate of the high priest (2 Chronicles 24:11), the Levites (Nehemiah 11:22), a military commander (2 Kings 25:19), Joseph's officers in Egypt (Genesis 41:34).
(7.) Hebrews sar, a ruler or chief; a word of very general use. It is used of the chief baker of Pharaoh (Genesis 40:16); of the chief butler (40:2, etc. See also Genesis 47:6; Exodus 1:11; Dan. 1:7; Judges 10:18; 1 Kings 22:26; 20:15; 2 Kings 1:9; 2 Samuel 24:2). It is used also of angels, guardian angels (Dan. 10:13, 20, 21; 12:1; 10:13; 8:25).
(8.) Pehah, whence pasha, i.e., friend of the king; adjutant; governor of a province (2 Kings 18:24; Isaiah 36:9; Jeremiah 51: 57; Ezek. 23:6, 23; Dan. 3:2; Esther 3:12), or a perfect (Nehemiah 3:7; 5:14; Ezra 5:3; Haggai 1:1). This is a foreign word, Assyrian, which was early adopted into the Hebrew idiom (1 Kings 10:15).
(9.) The Chaldean word segan is applied to the governors of the Babylonian satrapies (Dan. 3:2, 27; 6:7); the prefects over the Magi (2:48). The corresponding Hebrew word segan is used of provincial rulers (Jeremiah 51:23, 28, 57); also of chiefs and rulers of the people of Jerusalem (Ezra 9:2; Nehemiah 2:16; 4:14, 19; 5:7, 17; 7:5; 12:40).
In the New Testament there are also different Greek words rendered thus.
(1.) Meaning an ethnarch (2 Corinthians 11:32), which was an office distinct from military command, with considerable latitude of application.
(3.) Steward (Galatians 4:2).
(4.) Governor of the feast (John 2:9), who appears here to have been merely an intimate friend of the bridegroom, and to have presided at the marriage banquet in his stead.
(5.) A director, i.e., helmsman; Lat. gubernator, (James 3:4).
Noah Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language
1. (n.) One who governs; especially, one who is invested with the supreme executive authority in a State; a chief ruler or magistrate; as, the governor of Pennsylvania.
2. (n.) One who has the care or guardianship of a young man; a tutor; a guardian.
3. (n.) A pilot; a steersman.
4. (n.) A contrivance applied to steam engines, water wheels, and other machinery, to maintain nearly uniform speed when the resistances and motive force are variable.