Easton's Bible Dictionary
Derived from the Saxon helan, to cover; hence the covered or the invisible place. In Scripture there are three words so rendered:
(1.) Sheol, occurring in the Old Testament sixty-five times. This word sheol is derived from a root-word meaning "to ask," "demand;" hence insatiableness (Proverbs 30:15, 16). It is rendered "grave" thirty-one times (Genesis 37:35; 42:38; 44:29, 31; 1 Samuel 2:6, etc.). The Revisers have retained this rendering in the historical books with the original word in the margin, while in the poetical books they have reversed this rule.
In thirty-one cases in the Authorized Version this word is rendered "hell," the place of disembodied spirits. The inhabitants of sheol are "the congregation of the dead" (Proverbs 21:16). It is (a) the abode of the wicked (Numbers 16:33; Job 24:19; Psalm 9:17; 31:17, etc.); (b) of the good (Psalm 16:10; 30:3; 49:15; 86:13, etc.).
(2.) The Greek word hades of the New Testament has the same scope of signification as sheol of the Old Testament. It is a prison (1 Peter 3:19), with gates and bars and locks (Matthew 16:18; Revelation 1:18), and it is downward (Matthew 11:23; Luke 10:15).
(3.) Gehenna, in most of its occurrences in the Greek New Testament, designates the place of the lost (Matthew 23:33). The fearful nature of their condition there is described in various figurative expressions (Matthew 8:12; 13:42; 22:13; 25:30; Luke 16:24, etc.). (see HINNOM.)
Noah Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language
1. (n.) The place of the dead, or of souls after death; the grave; -- called in Hebrew Sheol, and by the Greeks Hades.
2. (n.) The place or state of punishment for the wicked after death; the abode of evil spirits. Hence, any mental torment; anguish.
3. (n.) A place where outcast persons or things are gathered
4. (n.) A dungeon or prison; also, in certain running games, a place to which those who are caught are carried for detention.
5. (n.) A gambling house.
6. (n.) A place into which a tailor throws his shreds, or a printer his broken type.
7. (v. t.) To overwhelm.