Easton's Bible Dictionary
(Hebrews ruah; Gr. pneuma), properly wind or breath. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 it means "breath," and in Ecclesiastes 8:8 the vital principle in man. It also denotes the rational, immortal soul by which man is distinguished (Acts 7:59; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 6:20; 7:34), and the soul in its separate state (Hebrews 12:23), and hence also an apparition (Job 4:15; Luke 24:37, 39), an angel (Hebrews 1:14), and a demon (Luke 4:36; 10:20). This word is used also metaphorically as denoting a tendency (Zechariah 12:10; Luke 13:11).
See HOLY GHOST.
Noah Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language
1. (n.) Air set in motion by breathing; breath; hence, sometimes, life itself.
2. (n.) A rough breathing; an aspirate, as the letter h; also, a mark to denote aspiration; a breathing.
3. (n.) Life, or living substance, considered independently of corporeal existence; an intelligence conceived of apart from any physical organization or embodiment; vital essence, force, or energy, as distinct from matter.
4. (n.) The intelligent, immaterial and immortal part of man; the soul, in distinction from the body in which it resides; the agent or subject of vital and spiritual functions, whether spiritual or material.
5. (n.) Specifically, a disembodied soul; the human soul after it has left the body.
6. (n.) Any supernatural being, good or bad; an apparition; a specter; a ghost; also, sometimes, a sprite,; a fairy; an elf.
7. (n.) Energy, vivacity, ardor, enthusiasm, courage, etc.
8. (n.) One who is vivacious or lively; one who evinces great activity or peculiar characteristics of mind or temper; as, a ruling spirit; a schismatic spirit.
9. (n.) Temper or disposition of mind; mental condition or disposition; intellectual or moral state; -- often in the plural; as, to be cheerful, or in good spirits; to be downhearted, or in bad spirits.
10. (n.) Intent; real meaning; -- opposed to the letter, or to formal statement; also, characteristic quality, especially such as is derived from the individual genius or the personal character; as, the spirit of an enterprise, of a document, or the like.
11. (n.) Tenuous, volatile, airy, or vapory substance, possessed of active qualities.
12. (n.) Any liquid produced by distillation; especially, alcohol, the spirits, or spirit, of wine (it having been first distilled from wine): -- often in the plural.
13. (n.) Rum, whisky, brandy, gin, and other distilled liquors having much alcohol, in distinction from wine and malt liquors.
14. (n.) A solution in alcohol of a volatile principle. Cf. Tincture.
15. (n.) Any one of the four substances, sulfur, sal ammoniac, quicksilver, or arsenic (or, according to some, orpiment).
16. (n.) Stannic chloride. See under Stannic.
17. (v. t.) To animate with vigor; to excite; to encourage; to inspirit; as, civil dissensions often spirit the ambition of private men; -- sometimes followed by up.
18. (v. t.) To convey rapidly and secretly, or mysteriously, as if by the agency of a spirit; to kidnap; -- often with away, or off.